Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects

During the day, light scattered by the atmosphere causes the island in the distance to be invisible. At sunset, when the sun is behind the photographer, almost all the light except for the red component is scattered before it reaches the scene and the island is visible. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
Diagram explaining how airlight is generated.
Clouds illuminated by the setting sun are red. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
During an eclipse, the little images of the sun seen through pinhole size holes in the leaves are crescent shaped. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
Fisheye view of the overhead sky with the sun covered up by the photographer's hand. Notice that the horizon is brighter than the overhead sky. This effect is due to the fact that the much larger volume of air seen close to the horizon can scatter more light. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
Mirage (inferior) seen close to a hot wall. Note the image of the car and the stick leaning against the wall. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
Superior mirage of a "floating" iceberg.
Inferior mirage of an approaching car. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
Diagram showing how inferior mirages are formed.
Diagram showing how superior mirages are formed.
Corona around the moon. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
A lunar eclipse where the moon is illuminated only by light shining through the earth's atmosphere. The moon appears red because all but the red rays have scattered away. From Minnaert, 1974.
Diagram showing how the lunar eclipse works.
Double rainbow. From Minnaert, 1974.
Double rainbow. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
Supernumerary bows caused by interference inside the primary rainbow. From Minnaert, 1974.
Diagram showing how the primary and secondary rainbows are formed.
Diagram showing how the primary rainbow is formed by single reflection in a raindrop.
The well-known "Spectre of the Brocken" caused by shadows falling on fog, leading to a three dimensional effect. This would be an interesting effect at night, wouldn't it? From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
A sun pillar caused by reflection of the setting sun in water. From Minnaert, 1974.
Sun pillar
Pillar caused by the moon
22 degree halo caused by ice crystals
Picture showing several halos at once
Diagram showing how the 22 degree and 46 degree halos are formed.
Diagram showing how the 22 degree halo is formed.
22 degree halo with flanking sundogs
Diagram showing how sundogs are formed by reflection from ice crystals..
Types of ice crystals which cause many halo effects
Sunrays streaming down from a cloud.
The setting sun appears flattened and causes a sun pillar by reflection. From Minnaert, 1974.
Distortions of the setting sun caused by the atmosphere. From Lynch & Livingston, 1995.
The setting sun meets its image in water, fusing together. From Minnaert, 1974.