## Physics Topics Covered in This Course

### Electric Charge and Electric Field (Chap. 18)

• Charge, conservation of charge, conductors and insulators
• Coulomb's law for point charges, comparison to gravitational force
• Force from multiple charges (vector addition of forces)
• Electric field E, force on charge from E, E from multiple charges, spherical shapes
• Electric field lines
• Conductors and E fields in static equilibrium
• Applications of electrostatics

### Electric Potential and Electric Field (Chap. 19)

• Electric potential energy U for two charges, U for multiple charges (scalar addition)
• Electron volt (eV) unit of energy for microscopic systems
• Conservation of energy, including electric potential energy
• Definition of potential V, potential difference ΔV, ΔV vs E, V for uniform E
• V for point charge, multiple charges, charge distributions
• Equipotential lines, relation to E field lines, conductors and equipotentials
• Capacitors and charge storage, parallel plate capacitor, E field inside capacitor, energy stored in capacitor, dielectrics
• Combining capacitors in series and parallel
• Applications of capacitors

### Electric Current, Resistance, Ohm's Law (Chap. 20)

• Definition of current, ampere unit, direction of current flow vs electron flow, relation between current and drift velocity
• Ohm's law & its applicability, definition of resistance, simple circuits
• Resistivity and resistance, calculating resistance from resistivity and geometry
• Resistivity vs temperature T
• Electric power and energy, power supplied by power supply, power dissipated by resistance
• AC vs DC circuits, rms quantities, average power in AC circuits

### Circuits, Instruments (Chap. 21)

• Resistors in series and parallel (finding equivalent resistance)
• EMF; effect of internal resistance on net voltage & delivered power
• Kirchhoff's rules and solving multi-loop circuits
• Ammeters, voltmeters and how they are used

### Magnetism (Chap. 22)

• Magnetic field lines, direction
• Force of B field on moving charge, current; right hand rule
• Orbit of moving charge in a B field (helix, circle, radius of curvature)
• Hall effect, Hall emf
• Torque on current loop; motors
• Generation of B fields from currents (ex. long wire, circular loop); right hand rule #2 ; Ampere's law
• Magnetic force between 2 parallel currents

### Electromagnetic Induction (Chap. 23)

• Magnetic flux, Faraday's law, Lenz' law, direction of induced current
• Motional emf, force on moving conductor in B field; magnetic damping
• Electric generators, back emf, motors, transformers
• Inductance, emf, energy stored in inductor
• RL circuits, behavior of current & voltage

### Electromagnetic Waves (Chap. 24)

• EM waves as oscillations of E, B fields; speed of EM waves in terms of ε0 and μ0
• Relation between B field and E field
• The electromagnetic spectrum vs wavelength and frequency (radio, microwave, IR, visible, UV, X-ray, gamma)
• Energy carried by EM waves; intensity; relation between energy and amplitude

### Geometric Optics (Chap. 25)

• Laws of reflection and refraction; index of refraction; Snell's law
• Total internal reflections & applications (fiber optics, medical instruments, etc.)
• Dispersion; how rainbows are formed
• Images from plane mirror, spherical mirror (concave/convex); focal length, ray tracing, lens equation, magnification
• Images from thin lens; converging and diverging lenses

### Vision and Optical Instruments (Chap. 26)

• Single lens instruments: Magnifier, projector, camera, human eye
• Two lens instruments: Telescope, microscope
• Lens and mirror aberrations and their correction
• Vision defects and their corrections

### Wave Optics (Chap. 27)

• Huygens' principle and propagation of light
• Interference, effect of interference on reflectivity from thin films & soap bubbles; applications of thin coatings for low reflectance lenses and high reflectance mirrors
• Polarization of light and it's causes
• Interference and path length; application to light transmitted through double slit
• Diffraction, single slit, diffraction grating; diffraction as a limitation on performance for optical instruments (Rayleigh criterion)
• Radiotelescopes and high resolution astronomy, VLBI